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      晶振 關鍵參數


      www.elainecharton.com 2011年9月18日

          

      1、工作頻率 
      晶振的頻率范圍一般在1到70MHz之間。但也有諸如通用的32.768kHz鐘表晶體那樣的特殊低頻晶體。 晶體的物理厚度限制其頻率上限。 歸功于類似反 向臺面(inverted Mesa)等制造技術的發展,晶體的頻率上限已從前些年的30MHz提升到200MHz。工作頻率一般按工作溫度25°C時給出。 
      可利用泛頻晶體實現200MHz以上輸出頻率的更高頻率晶振。另外,帶內置PLL 頻率倍增器的晶振可提供1GHz以上的頻率。當需要UHF和微波頻率時,聲表波(SAW)振蕩器是種選擇。 

      2、頻率精度:1PPM=1/1,000,000
      頻率精度也稱頻率容限,該指標度量晶振實際頻率于應用要求頻率值間的接近程度。其常用的表度方法是于特定頻率相比的偏移百分比或百萬分之幾(ppm)。例如,對一款精度±100ppm的 10MHz晶振來說,其實際頻率在10MHz±1000Hz之間。 
      (100/1,000,000)×10,000,000=1000Hz 
      它與下式意義相同:1000/10,000,000=0.0001=10-4或0.01%。典型的頻率精度范圍在1到 1000ppm,以最初的25°C 給出。精度很高的晶振以十億分之幾(ppb)給出。 

      3、頻率穩定性
      該指標量度在一個特定溫度范圍(如:0°C到 70°C 以及-40°C到 85°C)內,實際頻率與標稱頻率的背離程度。穩定性也以ppm給出,根據晶振種類的不同,該指標從10到 1000ppm變化很大(圖 2)。 

      4、 老化 
      老化指的是頻率隨時間長期流逝而產生的變化,一般以周、月或年計算。它于溫度、電壓及其它條件無關。在晶振上電使用的最初幾周內, 將發生主要的頻率改變。該值可在5到10ppm 間。在最初這段時間后, 老化引起的頻率變化速率將趨緩至幾ppm。 

      5、輸出 
      有提供不同種類輸出信號的晶振。輸出大多是脈沖或邏輯電平,但也有正弦波和嵌位正弦波輸出。 一些常見的數字輸出包括:TTL、HCMOS、ECL、PECL、CML 和LVDS。 
      許多數字輸出的占空比是40%/60%,但有些型號可實現45%/55%的輸出占空比。一些型號還提供三態輸出。一般還以扇出數或容抗值(pF)的方式給出了最大負載。 

      6、工作電壓 
      許多晶振工作在5V直流。但新產品可工作在1.8、2.5和 3.3V。 
      7、啟動時間 
      該規范度量的是系統上電后到輸出穩定時所需的時間。在一些器件內,有一個控制晶振輸出開/閉的使能腳。 

      8、相噪 
      在頻率很高或應用要求超穩頻率時,相噪是個關鍵指標。它表度的是輸出頻率短時的隨機漂移。它也被稱為抖動,它產生某類相位或頻率調制。該指標在頻率范圍內用頻譜分析儀測量,一般用dBc/Hz表示相噪。 
      晶振輸出的不帶相噪的正弦波被稱為載波,在頻譜分析儀上顯現為一條工作頻率上的垂直線。 相噪在載波之上和之下產生邊帶。 相噪幅度表示為邊帶功率幅值(Ps)與載波功率幅值(Pc)之比,以分貝表示: 
      相噪(dBc)=10log(Ps/Pc) 
      相噪的測量以載波的10kHz或100kHz頻率增量計算, 但也用到低至10Hz或 100Hz的其它頻率增量。相噪度量一般規整為與1Hz相等的帶寬。取決于載波的頻率增量,典型的相噪值在-80到-160dBc 之間。 

      9、可調性(Pullability) 
      該指標表度的是通過對一個壓控晶振(VCXO)施加一個外部控制電壓時, 該電壓所能產生的頻率改變。 它表示的是最大可能的頻率變化, 通常用ppm表示。 同 時還給出控制電壓水平,且有時還提供以百分比表示的線性值。典型的直流控制電壓范圍在0到 5V。頻率變化與控制電壓間的線性關系可能是個問題。 

      10、封裝 
      晶振有許多種封裝形態。過去,最常用的是金屬殼封裝,但現在,它已被更新的表貼(SMD)封裝取代。命名為HC-45、HC-49、HC-50或HC- 51的金屬封裝一般采用的是標準的DIP 通孔管腳。 而常見的SMD 封裝大小是5×7mm。 源于蜂窩手機制造商的要求,SMD封裝的趨勢是越做小、越薄。
       <<上一篇: 晶振雖小,作用很大
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